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  • Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast
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    Thread: plumbing, head, gravity flow, system curve, etc..

    1. #1
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      plumbing, head, gravity flow, system curve, etc..

      an attempt to place varying diagrams and explanations into one thread.
      • the posts themselves are out of order, i would strongly encourge you to just click on the links noted below. instead of trying to find a given post some place in this thread.
      • for those like myself that are using dail up and wish to view all the posts together. you may need to refresh the page a few times to get all the diagrams / pictures to load up. i have attempted to keep file sizes small. but
      1. index / table of context
        1. this section
        2. figuring out head loss, and what pump to buy
        3. if you don't like math, or math don't like you, ya prolly want to skip this section
        4. Everything you always wanted to know about drains, but didn't know how to ask!
        5. waterfalls
        6. HANDS ON EXPERIMENTS
        7. BIO FILER CAPACITY
        8. EXCEL FILES
        9. MISC. INFO.
        10. credits
      2. figuring out head loss, and what pump to buy
      3. if you don't like math, or math don't like you, ya prolly want to skip this section

        1. nothing but equations / formulas / and lots and lots of math
      4. Everything you always wanted to know about drains, but didn't know how to ask!
        1. bottom drains and partial explanation of TPR's
          1. bottom drain gap height diagrams and chart to set gap height
          2. bottom drain advance gap height settings. or for the home made drains and domes.
          3. ronin-koi 3d diagram showing bottom drain, air diffuser on bottom drain dome, and TPR's ( trigental point returns )
          4. types of drains / bottom drains / bottom drains with air diffusers
          5. guilt trip, WHY you want a bottom drain hooked into your filteration system.
        2. TPRs ( trigental point returns ) and partial explanation of drains
          1. depth placement of TPRs
          2. TPR's, CYLINDER shape pond.
          3. TPR's, SQUARE shape pond.
          4. TPR's, OVAL shape pond
          5. TPR's, RECTANGLE shape pond
          6. recap of basic 4 tpr diagrams / info on applying the basics to more complex shapes
          7. misc drain and tpr placement diagrams.
      5. WATERFALLS
        1. for pictures of waterfalls of other members of the forum click here
        2. waterfalls, understanding / building / useses
        3. chart waterfall weir sizing
        4. (( not completely done yet )) examples, links to waterfall builds, and other misc information.
        5. (( not yet done )) placement of waterfalls on pond
        6. (( not yet done )) diagrams of placement of waterfalls.
        7. (( no yet done )) more diagrams of placement of waterfalls
      6. HANDS ON EXPERMENTS
        1. bottom drains / drains
        2. TPR postioning and TPR currents
        3. TPR currents
        4. glass sheet waterfall vs splashing waterfall currents
      7. BIO FILTER CAPACITY
        1. (( not yet done simply making room to explain excel file ))
      8. EXCEL FILES
        1. direct link to post with excel files
      9. MISC. INFO.
        1. if ya see a mistake some place, plz let me know.
        2. welcome all critisim of any kind.
        3. if ya have any questions ask! ya never going to know if ya don't ask! been there done that, no fun. ask, get over that speed bump and move on. tis one of the reasons for a forum.
        4. i realize my own downfall is my wording (coughs mis-spellings ) but my words and ways of phrasing things can be confusing, they confuse myself some times. i encourge ya to reply to this thread or make another thread and restate it or what not. or simply ask about it. i barely remeber it, but i do remeber being a newbie. we all were one time or another.
      10. CREDITS
        1. in no order what so ever.
        2. stephen and mary, for creating this awesome forum
        3. all the koiphen family, for ya newbies that means you, and you guests!
          1. speaking of guests, SIGN UP ALREADY see the pictures!
        4. LeeKinneyKoi, helping different random things, and picture taken from here
        5. Ronin-Koi, for a bottom drain picture taken from here, and drain/tpr diagram, taken from here
        6. JanetMermaid, pictures taken from here
        7. NatureCalls, pictures taken from here
        8. bone333, picture taken from is a lost thread.
        9. avorancher, picture taken from is a lost thread.
        10. unknown person, picture taken from unknown click here, for more details upon picture in question
        11. birdman, pictures taken from here
        12. ponderingkoi, pictures taken from here
        13. already deleted PM, who told me about this naming? PM me again "Everything you always wanted to know about drains, but didn't know how to ask!"
        14. if i missed someone or something, plz let me know!
      Last edited by boggen; 01-22-2007 at 06:41 PM.

    2. #2
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      difference between gravity flow of water and pressurized flow of water.

      GRAVITY FLOW OF WATER
      • when water flows between 2 bodes of water. that are connected by a common channel / stream / pipe. and simply the difference between the heights of water level between the 2 bodes of water, causes the water to move from one body of water to the other body of water. this would be known as gravity flowing of water
      • Or in another thought to above comment "water seeks its own water level".
      • another way to identify gravity flow. is when ever water flows from one body of water to another body of water. and both bodies of water are open to the air. aka not sealed tighted containers.
      • water in a stream does NOT flow UP HILL, but it flows down hill. hence gravity flow of water.
      • when water falls off a waterfall weir. the water doesn't go up towards the sun. the water falls down. hence water falling down, or rather gravity flow of water.
      • when you have a sink full of water and you pull the drain. the water flows out the drain by gravity.
      PRESSURIZED FLOW OF WATER
      • when ever water is flowing up hill. the water is in a pipe or encased in a filter, that is not open to the atmostphere. normally a water pump or perhaps an air lift pump or some other device provides HEAD (( pressure )). to move the water up the hill
      • the pipe, fittings, and filters, between water pump inlet side (( suction side )) to the first body of water that is open to the atmosphere.
      • the pipe, fittings, and filters, between water pump outlet side (( pressurse side )) to the first body of water that is open to the atmosphere.
      PICTURES / DIAGRAMS A
      • below diagrams is my bad attempt, to show pressurized pipe runs and gravity flow pipe runs.
      • a little bit of everything.
      • could be a pond and a gravity flow filter
      • same thing as above diagram, just bodies of waters and pump moved around
      • this is kinda scary, being a pressurized filter before the pump. for the average folk, that includes myself!, that would be a NO NO, if ya new your stuff above cavitation point. great, if not. suggest not doing such a thing.
      • but that pressurized filter, could very well be a priming pot or leaf basket pot. which may be very well acceptable.
      • removs the water fall, possibly a QT tank setup?
      • this would be a no no. if the bottom 2 pipe lines ran water to the left. (( see above diagram )), but if water moved to the right it would be just fine.
      • this is kinda of a scary setup, trying to gravity flow water through a pressurized filter. but what if the pressurized filter was a UV, or some other pressurized filter that had very little filter / device head loss? it might be very well be accetable. and possible
      • this setup just plain scares me, if the body of water is a pond. i am seeing no filters what so ever.
      • kinda looks like a small size pond or QT tank setup, were a bead filter for example is only filter for pond.
      • exactly same thing as above. but just drawn different
      • don't know why you would have such a thing. but its a simlized drawing show pressureized flow of water, perhaps a boiler / heat exchanger setup?
      • possible a pond and a couple gravity flow filters.
      • looks like a pond that gravity flows to a good mechanical filter, then bio and fines filters above pond water level to me.
      • looks like same thing as above, but one of the filters traded out for a pressurized filter
      • looks like even a simpler version that above 2 diagrams. perhaps a small pond or QT tank setup?
      • looks to me, someone ran out of room, or just really likes a combination of multi different types of filters. perhaps the filter with waterfall is actually a trickle tower?
      PICTURES / DIAGRAMS B
      • the animated diagram is simply showing a pond and 3 gravity flow filters. it would act something like #2, #3, #9, #11 in diagrams noted above
      • basicly the above animated diagram is showing the following...
      • water pump is off
      • water pump gets turn on
      • water pump starts draw water from filter 3
      • fitler 3 water level lowers.
      • water gravity flows from filter 2 into filter 3
      • filter 2 water level lowers
      • water gravity flows from filter 1 into filter 2
      • filter 1 water level lowers
      • water gravity flows from pond into filter 1
      • water gravity flows into pond, from waterfall
      • as water fills up pond, pond water level rises a little bit.
      • eventally, all water levels will find a running water level.


      PICTURES / DIAGRAMS C
      • basicly the above animated diagram is showing the following...
      • water pump is off
      • water pump gets turn on
      • water pump starts draw water from filter 3
      • fitler 3 water level lowers.
      • water gravity flows from filter 2 into filter 3
      • filter 2 water level lowers
      • water gravity flows from filter 1 into filter 2
      • filter 1 water level lowers
      • water gravity flows from pond into filter 1
      • water gravity flows into pond, from waterfall
      • as water fills up pond, pond water level rises a little bit.
      • eventally, all water levels will find a running water level.
      • at this time i toss a peice of debriee (( brown chunk in diagram )) into pond, and show the debrie slowly moving through pond and filters. and slowly getting broken down and removed from the water.


      PICTURES / DIAGRAMS D
      • this is my bad attempt to show water flow through pond and the 3 gravity flow fitlers. by using the brown color as flow direction.
      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 01:14 PM.

    3. #3
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      differrent types of head losses, and/or friction losses.
      1. friction loss
      2. head
      3. static head
      4. dynamic head
      5. dynamic major head
      6. dynamic minor head
      7. gravity head
      8. suction head
      9. draw down head
      10. filter or device head
      for examples of identifing head losses shown in diagrams ( click here )
      1. FRICTION LOSS
        • have you ever gotten a rug burn? if ya did, your skin moving across the rug caused friction the result was of the friction was you getting burend.
        • in the pond / aquiram / salt tank worlds. we deal with friction loss, in our plumbing and filters, as we flow water through them.
        • we commonlly refer friction loss as a measurement of pressure loss. normaly being PSI ( pressure per square inch ) or Head of water in feet, or head of water in inches, in the US.
        • many times folks will simply say Head in inches, or head in feet. and leave out "of water" part.
        • which brings us to the next part...
      2. HEAD
        • head is a form of measurement of pressure. example PSI (( pressure per square inch )). Head is a measurment of depth of water. normally measured in, feet, inches, meters, or centi-meters.
        • for other forms of pressure and ways to convert pressure from one pressure to another pressure check out below site. once at site. scroll down and click on pressure.
        • http://www.onlineconversion.com
      3. STATIC HEAD
        • pretty easy and straight forward head measurement.
        • the vertical ( up down ) distance between pond surface water level. and the highest point water exits above the pond surface water level.
        • NOTE. this does not include pipeing, fittings, filters, etc... this is only the vertical measurent. not lengths or amounts of anything. just the vertical measurement.
        • not everyone will have static head loss. example if you don't have a waterfall you may not have any static head.
        • normally measured in feet of head.
      4. DYNAMIC HEAD
        • dynamic meaning it changes per each situation
        • there are 2 types of dynamic head.
          • Major deals with length of straight pipe in a pipe run.
          • Minor deals with fittings, valves in a pipe run.
        • some things to keep in mind, when dealing with dynamic head loss.
        • the faster the flow rate, the more head loss you will have.
        • a smaller sized diamter pipe vs a larger sized diamter pipe. the smaller pipe will have more dynamic major head loss vs the larger pipe that will have less dynamic major head loss.
        • a smaller sized diamter fittings vs a larger sized diamter fittings. the smaller pipe will have more dynamic major head loss vs the larger pipe that will have less dynamic major head loss.
        • longer the length of straight pipe you have. the more head loss you will have.
      5. DYNAMIC MAJOR HEAD
        • Dynamic MAJOR head deals with straight length of pipe.
        • there are many varities to caculate the head loss. 3 of the more common ways to caculated dynamic major head loss are...
          • darcy weisbach head loss equation
            • this seems to be the more favored equation out there, for caculating dynamic major head loss. namely, the equation can work with alot of other liquids, such as salt water and gas (air) in calculating the dynamic major head loss.
            • the equation itself is best used in a spread sheet or some program. were a computer can perform the multi calulations in only a matter of a second. compared to hand writing it out could take a good sum of time.
            • the equation relies on 2 other numbers that can be derived from a set of other eqations. one of which is reynolds number. this number will determind what the other equation gets used for the 2nd number.
            • this 2nd number is the friction factor. pending on what renoylds number equals, there could be a easy list of 10 plus equations you could then use to obtain the best closet caculated estimated dynamic major head loss.
            • if ya more intrested in what is what. do a search on your favorite search engine. for "head loss" or "darcy weisbach head loss" or "cole-broke equation" or "moody diagram" or swain jain friction factor, or... and the list goes on.
            • a good source of information can be found at...
          • hazen and williams head loss equation
            • this equation is only good for fresh water, attempt to use it for salt water or gas ( air ) and you be out of luck. this equation is handy for out in the field and you want to quick way to calculate the dynamic head loss, without going through a bunch of math. the numbers that are returned from the equation are more off than what darcy weisbach equation would be.
          • mannings equation.
            • this equation is more favored for gravity flow of water. such as streams and channels.
        • all 3 give almost the same dynamic head loss. but there can be enough of a difference to have another 2 or 4 feet more loss than another equation.
        • why all the whoot of above 3 equations? folks seem to love charts. some charts are based on varying assumptions. and these assumputions normally not always state what the assumptions are.
      6. DYNAMIC MINOR HEAD
        • dynamic minor head loss is for calculateing the loss of fittings and valves.
        • there are a couple sets of equations.
        • one equation will give you the equvilent straight length of pipe.
          • meaning, you simply add the value you get from the equation, and add it into your straight length of pipe, then take the total straight length of pipe, and use a dynamic major head loss equation on all of it.
          • there are many charts out there like this. you need to be carefull of using such charts. many of these charts only work for a single flow rate. example 2,000 gallons per hour, but if you used the numbers for these charts for say 1,000 gallons per hour, or 3,000 gallons per hour. your end result head loss may be way way off.
          • granted the equation is nice for charts. but there is a easier way of doing things if you are writing all the math out.
        • there is another equation that will gives you a dynamic minor head loss directly
          • this equation skips using the converstion to equivlent length of pipe , and gives you a head loss for a fitting or valve directly.
        • both of the equations rely on a K value, or rather K coefficent for the fitting or valve. some times instead of a K coefficent, there will be a CV coeffiecent in which there is an equation to convert a CV coefficent to a K coefficent.
      7. GRAVITY HEAD
        • this is only going to be getting used for gravity flow of water.
        • a gravity pump would describe the use of difference in elevation of water between 2 bodies of water connected by a common submerged pipe to obtain a given flow rate. the gravity head, is that elevation difference
        • in all honesty, Gravity Head, or Elevation Head, or elevation Difference head, or Gravity Pump Head, Velocity Head, to many others could be used. to this day still trying to come to some common ground of what to call this. or if there is a specific name for this head that is used in the plumbing world.
        • this thread ( click here ), has a few more charts than what is posted in the chart section, along with gravity head typed out in equations, that you could follow along. if you wish to figure out your own gravity head and go through the equations.
      8. SUCTION HEAD
        • there 2 reasons for obtaining suction head.
          1. is to include the head loss when figuring total head.
          2. but main reason of suction head. is to calculate the cavitation point of a water pump.
        • in lamen terms. the cavtation point of a water pump. is the point were the pump creates so much suction. that the water pump litterly pulls the air out of the water.
        • normally water pumps can push (outlet side) a great deal more pressure. vs pulling pressure. (inlet side) and this is due to cavitation. and reason why you rarly ever see a pressurized filter on the inlet side of a water pump. or less the given person knows there stuff more or less.
        • if your pump sounds like it is grinding rocks, there is a good chance your pump is cavitating.
        • a pump that is cavitating, can have dramatic much more wear and tear on the pump causing the pump to not last as long, or the cavitation can be so bad, that the pump itself does not pump any water.
      9. DRAW DOWN HEAD
        • gravity flow filters can have draw down issues. meaning. folks improperly selected a water pump. and the water pump is litterly to big / sucking the gravity filter nearest to the pump inlet. competely dry of water.
        • or they improperly sized the diameter of there pipes and fittings. for there gravity flows, and are having problems with water level needing to be 2 low. to flow the given flow rate they want to flow. through there filter setups.
        • the main purpose for this head for me, is to figure out roughly what water level will be in a gravity flow filter vs the body of water before it. so the inlets and outlets on the filter can be placed correctly. along with figuring out size of pipe to use for gravity flow of water.
        • in the simplist form. draw down is the sum of gravity head plus dynamic heads.
      10. FILTER or DEVICE HEAD
        • ya can't have a total head without a filter head losses.
        • most of the time manufactors will state a range of flow rates for a filter. most likely ya prolly want to stay within those flow rates for any given filter. and ya prolly be wanting to stay within those flow rates. there be limits for a reason some were in there.
        • but the more tricker part than finding flow rates. are the friction losses, or the head losses at given flow rates. for the filter or device.
        • you will most likely find the head losses for pressurized filters, more so for bead filters and sand filters (( think of a type pool type pressurized filter ))
        • on gravity flow filters, it may be slim pickings in finding head losses, mainly due to gravity flow filters if they have any sort of head loss, it will have a dramatic effect on draw down head. and if there has to be 12 inches of draw down head to flow water. ya talking about 12 inches of a filter chamber that is not getting used. filter chambers are costly and always have been costly and prolly always will be costly.
      11. TOTAL HEAD
        • total head or rather total head loss. is a sum of all head losses
        • total head is mostly used to create a profile system curve chart for there setup. with a system curve. folks can then find out what water pump would best fit there setup.
        • because folks ((including myself)) end up changing something here or there during the planning stages and building stages, and selecting different things. if folks buy a water pump right off the get go. they could easly have bought a pump that does not produce enough flow or to much flow for there setup. and because of this we have, heads, and system curves.
      for examples of identifing head losses shown in diagrams ( click here )
      Last edited by boggen; 01-21-2007 at 02:13 PM.

    4. #4
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      1. DIAGRAM 1
        • static head
          • note that i did not draw the line clear up to filter 4, but to the top of filter 5. remeber static head is measured from point it exits, or rather the water flows into a chamber that is open to air. or end of a pipe that is open to air.
        • draw down head loss
          • same for all 3 draw down head losses.
          • water is flow by gravity, so there is gravity head loss
          • there is length of straight pipe, so there is dynamic major head loss
          • there is fittings, so there dynamic minor head loss
        • filter 4, is a pressurized filter.
          • for diagram, note difference between tops of filters 1,2,3,5 vs filter 4. in that filter 4 has a closed top. this is my bad attempt to show a pressurized filter.
      2. DIAGRAM 2
        • just like diagram 1, but more simplified
        • water is not being returned above pond water surface, so there is no static head.
        • there is no pressurized filter, so we don't have any pressurized filter head.
        • but we do have water flowing by gravity.
      3. DIAGRAM 3
        • there are 2 static heads in this diagram. in reality. it would simply be easier to treat the upper pond as if just part of a multi teir waterfall. and measure static head from lower pond to top of filter 3.
        • notice filter 2, is a pressurized filter. the goal is simple showing another placement for a pressurized filter
      4. DIAGRAM 4
        • no static head. because water is not being returned above pond water level
        • we do have one pipe run that is flowing by gravity, so gravity head loss
        • and we have two prssurized filters (( filter 2 and filter 3 ))

      5. DIAGRAM 5
        • almost exactly like diagram 4. but we haave a static head loss. because water is exiting above pond water level
      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 01:00 PM.

    5. #5
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      Charts
      • Dynamic MAJOR head loss
        • in feet (( for 10 feet of straight length of pipe ))
          • example
            • you have 20 feet of 2" pipe
            • and you will be flowing 4000 gallons per hour through pipe.
            • looking up 4000 gallons per hour and 2" pipe in above chart. we get...
            • 8.64536 feet per 10 feeet of straight pipe
            • 20 * 8.64536 / 10 = 17.29072 dynamic MAJOR head loss in feet
        • in inches (( for 10 feet of straight length of pipe ))
          • example
            • you have 23 feet of 3" pipe
            • and you will be flowing 2000 gallons per hour through pipe.
            • looking up 2000 gallons per hour and 3" in the inches chart above. we get....
            • 2.36322 inches per 10 feet of straight pipe
            • 23 * 2.36322 / 10 = 5.435406 dynamic major head loss in inches
      • Dynamic MINOR head loss
        • K values
        • to obtain dynamic minor head loss in feet.
          • take K value found in above charts
          • then find gallons per hour, to pipe size, in gravity head loss in feet noted below
          • then multiply the 2 numbers together to get dynamic minor head loss in feet.
          • example
            • 2" long radius 90 = 0.3 K value
            • at 1000gph using 2" pipe we get 0.14231 feet
            • 0.3 * 0.14231 = 0.042693 dynamic minor head loss in feet for a long radius 2" 90
        • to obtain dynamic minor head loss in inches.
          • take K value found in above charts
          • then find gallons per hour, to pipe size, in gravity head loss in inches below
          • then multiply the 2 numbers together to get dynamic minor head loss in inches.
          • example
            • 2" long radius 90 = 0.3 K value
            • at 1000gph using 2" pipe we get 0.54034 inches
            • 0.3 * 0.54034 = 0.162102 dynamic minor head loss in inches for a long radius 2" 90
      • Gravity Head loss
      • Velocity
      note all the above head losses can be easly be caculated using ( headloss_bottomdrains.xls ) excel spreadsheet file. ( click here ) to goto excel file page for more information.
      --------------------
      updates / fixes

      2.20.2007 corrected ( dynamic major head loss in inches chart )
      Last edited by boggen; 02-21-2007 at 01:30 AM.

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      using the below diagram, there are the following examples. using different flow rates and pipe sizes. are noted in this page.
      • example 1
        • the basics
        • pond = 2000 gallons of water in size
        • we are using 3" pipeing and fittings for all pipe runs.
        • we have a water pump that has 2" outlet and 2" inlet
        • we are going to shoot for 1 hour turn over rate. so we will need 2000 gallons per hour of water going through all filters, and all pipe runs.
        • doing the math we get
          • 2.463493 = total head loss in feet
          • 1.5174528 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 0.8032368 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 0.8032368 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3
      • example 2
        • uses 2 " for all pipes and fittings instead of 3 "
        • everything else is same as example 1
        • doing the math we get
          • 4.6527214 = total head loss in feet
          • 9.0428772 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 4.301928 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 4.301928 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3
      • example 3
        • uses 3" for pipe runs 1 through 3, and 2" for pipe runs 4 and 5
        • everything else is same as example 1
        • doing the math we get
          • 3.4424875 = total head loss in feet
          • 1.5174528 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 0.8032368 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 0.8032368 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3
      • example 4
        • uses 3000 gallons per hour instead of 2000 gallons per hour. to achive 30 minute turn over rate of water for the pond.
        • everything else is same as example 1
        • doing the math we get
          • 3.0021359 = total head loss in feet
          • 3.275448 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 1.7865768 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 1.7865768 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3
      • example 5
        • uses 2 " for all pipes and fittings instead of 3 "
        • uses 3000 gallons per hour instead of 2000 gallons per hour. to achive 30 minute turn over rate of water for the pond.
        • everything else is same as example 1
        • doing the math we get
          • 7.7018354 = total head loss in feet
          • 19.43697 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 9.5442528 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 9.5442528 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3
      • example 6
        • uses 3" for pipe runs 1 through 3, and 2" for pipe runs 4 and 5
        • uses 3000 gallons per hour instead of 2000 gallons per hour. to achive 30 minute turn over rate of water for the pond.
        • everything else is same as example 1
        • doing the math we get
          • 5.0620959 = total head loss in feet
          • 3.275448 = draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1
          • 1.7865768 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2
          • 1.7865768 = draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3




      to make things easier, i choped out the needed parts of given charts, and included it in below diagram ( click here ) to see the complete charts



      AND NOW FOR ALL THE MATH !!!

      EXAMPLE 1
      • for this example some assumputions are made
        • pond = 2000 gallons of water in size
        • we are using 3" pipeing and fittings for all pipe runs.
        • we have a water pump that has 2" outlet and 2" inlet
        • we are going to shoot for 1 hour turn over rate. so we will need 2000 gallons per hour of water going through all filters, and all pipe runs.
      • in the diagram i drew out each pipe run, showing stragiht length of pipe and fittings. to make it easier to say what was what in each pipe run.
      • i also drew out static head.
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 2000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • we know we will be using 3" for all pipes and fittings
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for dynamic major head loss.
          • 0.03302 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
        • for dynamic minor head loss K values.
          • 0.03 = coupling
          • 0.29 = standard elbow long radius 90
          • 0.28 = reducer (( sudden contraction )) (( 3" pipe to 2" water pump inlet ))
          • 0.31 = reducer (( sudden expansion )) (( 2" water pump outlet to 3" pipe ))
        • for gravity head loss
          • 0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet.
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.057785 = 17.5 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0085852 = 2.6 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0085852 = 2.6 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.0194818 = 5.9 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.108966 = 33 * 0.03302 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.93 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.89 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.28
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 1.21 = 0.31 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.0330894 = 0.93 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0227712 = 0.64 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0227712 = 0.64 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.0316662 = 0.89 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.0430518 = 1.21 * 0.03558
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.057785 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0085852 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0085852 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.0194818 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.108966 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.0330894 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0227712 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0227712 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.0316662 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.0430518 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 2.463493 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 1.5174528 = 0.057785 + 0.0330894 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 0.8032368 = 0.0085852 + 0.0227712 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 0.8032368 = 0.0085852 + 0.0227712 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      EXAMPLE 2
      • for this example the only thing that changes form EXAMPLE 1, is that we will be using 2" pipe and fittings for all pipe runs.
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 2000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • we know we will be using 2 " for all pipes and fittings
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for dynamic major head loss.
          • 0.22889 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
        • for dynamic minor head loss.
          • 0.03 = coupling
          • 0.3 = standard elbow long radius 90
          • note we are no longer reducing down to or up to pump size inlet or outlet, but we are still using a coupling so the coupling gets values get used.
        • for gravity head loss
          • 0.18011 = gravity head loss in feet.
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.4005575 = 17.5 * 0.22889 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0595114 = 2.6 * 0.22889 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0595114 = 2.6 * 0.22889 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.1350451 = 5.9 * 0.22889 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.755337 = 33 * 0.22889 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.66 = 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.3
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.66 = 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.3
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.66 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.1729056 = 0.96 * 0.18011
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.1188726 = 0.66 * 0.18011
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.1188726 = 0.66 * 0.18011
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.1188726 = 0.66 * 0.18011
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.1729056 = 0.96 * 0.18011
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.4005575 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0595114 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0595114 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.1350451 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.755337 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.1729056 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.1188726 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.1188726 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.1188726 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.1729056 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.18011 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.18011 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.18011 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 4.6527214 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss we get
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 9.0428772 = 0.4005575 + 0.1729056 + 0.18011 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 4.301928 = 0.0595114 + 0.1188726 + 0.18011 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 4.301928 = 0.0595114 + 0.1188726 + 0.18011 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      EXAMPLE 3
      • for this example the only thing that changes form EXAMPLE 1, is that we will be using...
        • 2" pipe and fittings for pipe run 4 and pipe run 5
        • 3" pipe and fittings for pipe run 1, pipe run 2, and pipe run 3
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 2000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for 3"
          • for dynamic major head loss.
            • 0.03302 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
          • for dynamic minor head loss.
            • 0.03 = coupling
            • 0.29 = standard elbow long radius 90
            • 0.28 = reducer (( sudden contraction )) (( 3" pipe to 2" water pump inlet ))
            • 0.31 = reducer (( sudden expansion )) (( 2" water pump outlet to 3" pipe ))
          • for gravity head loss
            • 0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet.
        • for 2"
          • for dynamic major head loss.
            • 0.22889 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
          • for dynamic minor head loss.
            • 0.03 = coupling
            • 0.3 = standard elbow long radius 90
            • note we are no longer reducing down to or up to pump size inlet or outlet, but we are still using a coupling so the coupling gets values get used.
          • for graviy head loss
            • 0.18011 = gravity head loss in feet.
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.057785 = 17.5 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0085852 = 2.6 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0085852 = 2.6 * 0.03302 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.1350451 = 5.9 * 0.22889 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.755337 = 33 * 0.22889 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.93 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.66 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.0330894 = 0.93 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0227712 = 0.64 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0227712 = 0.64 * 0.03558
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.1188726 = 0.66 * 0.18011
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.1729056 = 0.96 * 0.18011
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.057785 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0085852 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0085852 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.1350451 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.755337 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.0330894 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0227712 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0227712 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.1188726 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.1729056 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.03558 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 3.4424875 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss we get...
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 1.5174528 = 0.057785 + 0.0330894 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 0.8032368 = 0.0085852 + 0.0227712 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 0.8032368 = 0.0085852 + 0.0227712 + 0.03558 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      EXAMPLE 4
      • for this this example, we will be changing 2000 gallons per hour to 3000 gallosn per hour from example 1
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 3000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • we know we will be using 3" for all pipes and fittings
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for dynamic major head loss.
          • 0.06769 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
        • for dynamic minor head loss. 0.03 = coupling
          • 0.29 = standard elbow long radius 90
          • 0.28 = reducer (( sudden contraction )) (( 3" pipe to 2" water pump inlet ))
          • 0.31 = reducer (( sudden expansion )) (( 2" water pump outlet to 3" pipe ))
        • for gravity head loss
          • 0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet.
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.1184575 = 17.5 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0175994 = 2.6 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0175994 = 2.6 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.0399371 = 5.9 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.223377 = 33 * 0.06769 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.93 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.89 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.28
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 1.21 = 0.31 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.0744465 = 0.93 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.051232 = 0.64 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.051232 = 0.64 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.0712445 = 0.89 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.0968605 = 1.21 * 0.08005
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.1184575 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0175994 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0175994 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.0399371 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.223377 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.0744465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.051232 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.051232 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.0712445 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.0968605 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 3.0021359 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss we get...
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 3.275448 = 0.1184575 + 0.0744465 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 1.7865768 = 0.0175994 + 0.051232 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 1.7865768 = 0.0175994 + 0.051232 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      EXAMPLE 5
      • for this this example,
        • we will be changing 2000 gallons per hour to 3000 gallosn per hour from example 1
        • along with using 2" instead of 3" for all pipe runs.
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 3000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • we know we will be using 2 " for all pipes and fittings
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for dynamic major head loss.
          • 0.47169 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
        • for dynamic minor head loss.
          • 0.03 = coupling
          • 0.30 = standard elbow long radius 90
          • note we are no longer reducing down to or up to pump size inlet or outlet, but we are still using a coupling so the coupling gets values get used.
        • for gravity head loss
          • 0.40525 = gravity head loss in feet.
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.8254575 = 17.5 * 0.47169 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.1226394 = 2.6 * 0.47169 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.1226394 = 2.6 * 0.47169 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.2782971 = 5.9 * 0.47169 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 1.556577 = 33 * 0.47169 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.66 = 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.3
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.66 = 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.3
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.66 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.38904 = 0.96 * 0.40525
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.267465 = 0.66 * 0.40525
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.267465 = 0.66 * 0.40525
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.267465 = 0.66 * 0.40525
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.38904 = 0.96 * 0.40525
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.8254575 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.1226394 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.1226394 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.2782971 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          1.556577 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.38904 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.267465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.267465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.267465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.38904 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.40525 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.40525 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.40525 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 7.7018354 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss we get...
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 19.43697 = 0.8254575 + 0.38904 + 0.40525 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 9.5442528 = 0.1226394 + 0.267465 + 0.40525 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 9.5442528 = 0.1226394 + 0.267465 + 0.40525 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      EXAMPLE 6
      • for this example the only thing that changes form EXAMPLE 1, is that we will be using...
        • 2" pipe and fittings for pipe run 4 and pipe run 5
        • 3" pipe and fittings for pipe run 1, pipe run 2, and pipe run 3
        • 3000 gallons per instead of 2000 gallons per hour. for a 30 minute turn over rate.
        • everything else is same as example 1.
      • to make it simplier lets pull some data from charts first.
        • we know we will be flowing 2000 gallons per hour through all pipes, fittings and filters.
        • with that we can pull data from charts. ( click here )to goto charts
        • for 3"
          • for dynamic major head loss.
            • 0.06769 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
          • for dynamic minor head loss.
            • 0.03 = coupling
            • 0.29 = standard elbow long radius 90
          • for gravity head loss
            • 0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
        • for 2"
          • for dynamic major head loss.
            • 0.47169 = dynamic major head loss per 10 feet length of straight pipe
          • for dynamic minor head loss.
            • 0.03 = coupling
            • 0.30 = standard elbow long radius 90
            • note we are no longer reducing down to or up to pump size inlet or outlet, but we are still using a coupling so the coupling gets values get used.
          • for gravity head loss
            • 0.40525 = gravity head loss in feet
      • so with above data from charts, and using the diagram above, lets figure out all the dynamic head losses
        • total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 1 = 17.5 = 0.5 + 10 + 3 + 4
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 2 = 2.6 = 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.5
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 3 = 2.6 = 0.3 + 0.3 + 1 + 0.3 + 0.7
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 4 = 5.9 = 0.4 + 2 + 1.5 + 2
          total length of pipe in feet for pipe run 5 = 33 = 4 + 7 + 20 + 2
        • dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.1184575 = 17.5 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.0175994 = 2.6 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.0175994 = 2.6 * 0.06769 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.2782971 = 5.9 * 0.47169 / 10
          dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 1.556577 = 33 * 0.47169 / 10
        • total K valuve for pipe run 1 = 0.93 = 0.03 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.29 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 2 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 3 = 0.64 = 0.29 + 0.03 + 0.03 + 0.29
          total K valuve for pipe run 4 = 0.66 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
          total K valuve for pipe run 5 = 0.96 = 0.03 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.3 + 0.03
        • dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1 = 0.0744465 = 0.93 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2 = 0.051232 = 0.64 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3 = 0.051232 = 0.64 * 0.08005
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4 = 0.267465 = 0.66 * 0.40525
          dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5 = 0.38904 = 0.96 * 0.40525
      • and now lets create a list of all the head losses.
        • 0.1184575 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.0175994 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.0175994 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.2782971 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          1.556577 = dynamic major head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.0744465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 1
          0.051232 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 2
          0.051232 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 3
          0.267465 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 4
          0.38904 = dynamic minor head loss in feet for pipe run 5
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          0.08005 = gravity head loss in feet
          2 = static head in feet
      • adding up all the head losses we get
        • 5.0620959 = total head loss in feet
      • thats all there is to it.
      • for draw down head loss
        • draw down head loss in inches between pond and filter 1 = 3.275448 = 0.1184575 + 0.0744465 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 1 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 1 and filter 2 = 1.7865768 = 0.0175994 + 0.051232 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 2 in feet ))
        • draw down head loss in inches between filter 2 and filter 3 = 1.7865768 = 0.0175994 + 0.051232 + 0.08005 * 12
          • ((note using dynamic head losses from pipe run 3 in feet ))
      Last edited by boggen; 01-21-2007 at 05:25 PM.

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      • this diagram and set of examples. brings up a hole new thing, and that is dealing with a manifold or rather Tee fittings and valve fittings.
        • for the simple diagram. we most likely want even flow from all TPR's to maintain our water currents in symetery.
          • simply easy when doing math
        • but for other different shaped ponds. we may want 1/3 of the flow going to 1 TPR and the other 2/3's of the flow going to the rest of the TPRs.
          • same as above, but a little more work
        • but yet other setups, we don't care how much flow we get per TPR, just as long as we get the lowest possible head loss.
          • lots and lots of math.
      • EXAMPLE 7
        • pond is 2,000 gallons
        • pump has 2" inlet and a 2" outlet
        • we are going to shoot for a 1 hour turn over rate
        • we want even flow to all 4 TPR's (tringental point returns)
        • all pipe runs = 3" piping and fittings
      • EXAMPLE 8
        • pipe runs 8,10,13, and 15 = 2"
        • all other pipe runs = 3"
        • everything else is same as example 7
      • EXAMPLE 9
        • all pipe runs = 2"
        • everything else is same as example 7
      • EXAMPLE 10
        • pipe runs 8,10,13, and 15 = 1"
        • all other pipe runs = 2"
        • everything else is same as example 7
      • EXAMPLE 11
        • shooting for 30 minute turn over rate.
        • everything else is same as example 7
      • EXAMPLE 12
        • shooting for 30 minute turn over rate.
        • pipe runs 8,10,13, and 15 = 2"
        • all other pipe runs = 3"
        • everything else is same as example 7
      • EXAMPLE 13
        • shooting for 30 minute turn over rate.
        • all pipe runs = 2"
        • everything else is same as example 7
      EXAMPLE 14
      • shooting for 30 minute turn over rate.
      • pipe runs 8,10,13, and 15 = 1"
      • all other pipe runs = 2"
      • everything else is same as example 7
















      REDO count number 12 *ughs* one of these times, i will get it nearly corrected.
      Last edited by boggen; 01-22-2007 at 09:40 PM.

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 04:36 AM.

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      Thank you Boggen.
      My favorite Quotes:

      The person who makes no mistakes usually does not make anything.
      Everything starts as somebody's daydream
      Experience is a dear teacher, but fools will learn from no other


      Proud Annual Charter Member # 3

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:09 AM.

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:10 AM.

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:11 AM.

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:12 AM.

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      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:12 AM.

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      Mr. Boggon, Super Helper explainer Guy

      Thanks Mr. Boggon,

      Your diagrams and explanations are absolutely the best for us newbie learner types. You spend a great deal of time with your drawings and custom solutions for anyone that asks.

      Thanks from all us newbies,
      steve

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      sizing pipes and fittings (( aka estimating before ya start building and install your filters and plumbing. ))

      VELOCITY
      • velocity is a measure of length per time. example miles per hour. for us average folks. we will be intrested in velocity in feet per second.
      • just like driving a car, you have miniumn and maxiumn speed limits. we have them in plumbing.
      • max limit velocity = 5 feet per second
        • for the average folks, we use lots of plastic piping and tubing when hooking up everything in our ponds and filters. plastic pipe has a speed limit of 5 feet per second. the reason behind the 5 feet per second is the water hammer effect.
        • basicly when a pump suddenly turns on or you open and close a value real quick. water has to either stop or start movign all of a sudden. examples would be slamming on the brakes in your car causing the car to come to a complete abrubt stop. another example could be, from a dead stop, hitting the gas peddle to leave some tread marks on the road. in either case plastic just doesn't like taking alot of force from those sudden stops and starts. and by keeping the speed limit if you will below 5 feet per second. you play it safe.
        • also normally when you go above a velocity of 5 feet per second. your dynamic head loss normally goes up exteremely high. so high that it normally not worth using that small of a pipe. and best to use a bigger size pipe.
      • miniumn speed limit in pipes and fittings varies
        • gravity flow pipe runs
          • we normally want to keep it above atleast 1 feet per second. to keep fish poo, and other debrie in the water from settling within the pipe.
          • but as debrie size get larger and heavier, a faster velocity needs to be maintained to keep stuff from sticking within a pipe.
          • many times. when you use gravity flow pipe runs. more so the pipe run between bottom drains and the first gravity flow filters. folks are required to do a flushing of that pipe run. during filter cleaning.
            • flushing meaning.
            • i close a valve going to the bottom drain.
            • drain that first gravity flow filter all the way.
            • open the valve to bottom drain real quick.
            • let water rush into the filter for a few moments. (( can't give ya a time frame it depends ))
            • then shut valve
            • drain filter again.
            • then open valve and continue on with normal operation of filters.
          • because gravity flow pipe sizes normally require a much bigger pipe size, to deal with draw down in filters. we can't use smaller size pipes to get a higher velocity to keep stuff from settling within the pipes. that above mention flushing. does this for us. normaly the flushing creating a very high velocity that will remove most items from a pipe.
        • pressurized flows pipe runs
          • its nice to stay above 2 feet if perhaps 3 feet per second being better. but staying below 5 feet per second.
          • at above velocities, normally all the pipe work is kept clean of debrie.
          • due to most pumps can handle a little extra head and not make a big difference in flow they produce. we normally opt for that higher velocity to keep our plumbing clean and running good.
      general rule of thumb flow rates, for gravity flow pipe runs.
      • (( note to myself and others make a big deal of general rules in that they can be a bad doing))
      • the general rule of thumb. is based on velocities, lengths of pipe, fittings, that a average folk will most likely see in there pipe run. again the below are based on some varying assumptions that changes from person to person. but generally stay to the same numbers noted below.
      • 3600 gallons per hour for 4" pipe with a 1 inch draw down head
      • 2000 gallons per hour for 3" pipe with a 1 inch draw down head
      • 700 gallons per hour for a 2" pipe with a 1 inch draw down head
      ESTIMATING
      • go outside, get a garden hose or perhaps spray paint that is safe to spray on the grass (( pick up at most local hardware stores )) and start painting were ya think you will plan to run pipes and were fittings will be, and were valves and other inlets and outlets will be.
      • when ya get done. grab a notebook, pencel, tape measure and have some fun. draw a little sketch in the notebook if it helps figure out things. doesn't have to be anything fantasic. as long as you understand it. it doesn't matter what other think. ((i don't want show ya / tell ya how many times i have messed up diagrams i have made. *gulps some thinking about it*))
      • all we are intrested in is the pipe runs. and what length of straight pipe you have in a given pipe run and amount of each type of fittings. nothing special. just a good honest guess is good enough. to get a rough idea for figuring out head losses and system curves and velocities.
      Last edited by boggen; 01-20-2007 at 09:13 AM.

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      nothing but equations / formulas / and lots and lots of math

      general post, to hold varying equations.

      note i do not use standard ordinary scientific standards of labling. i just use lamen term variable labels and names.
      • area formulas.
        • square = length * length
        • rectangle = length * width
        • circle = radius * radius * pie
        • circle = diameter * diameter * pie / 4
        • oval = short radius * long radius * pie
        • ellispe = short radius * long radius * pie
        • parralllelogram = base * height
        • trapezoid = height / 2 * ( base A + base B )
        • right triangle = width * height / 2

      • volumn formulas
        • pyramid = area of base * height * ( 1 / 3 )
        • cone = radius * radius * pie * ( 1 / 3 )
        • sphere = radius * radius * radius * pie * ( 4 / 3 )
        • half of a sphere = radius * radius * radius * pie * ( 4 / 3 ) / 2
        • cube = length * width * height
        • prisim = area of triangle * height
        • seem pertaint enough. estimate pond volumn, by adding...
      • bottom drain gap height
        • to set gap height for dome
        • gap height = radius of pipe connected to drain* radius of pipe connected to drain / diameter of dome
        • above formula works for most manufactor drains, diy drains or domes on the other hand may be different story.
      • ELEVATION DIFFERENCE head loss in feet
        • ELE = ( ( CFS * CFS ) / ( AF * AF ) ) ) / ( 2 * G)
        • ELE = elevation difference head in feet.
        • GPH = gallons per hour
        • CFS = cubic feet per second = GPH / ( 7.48 * 60 * 60 )
        • AF = area of a circle in feet = ( diameter in inches * diameter in inches * PIE ) / 576
        • PIE = 3.14
        • G = 32.174 in feet per second squared = acceleration of gravity
      • dynamic major head loss equations (( for stragiht length of pipe ))
        • darcy weisbach equations using swaing jain friction factor equation.
          • darcy weisbach head loss equation in feet = ( FF * ( LEN / DIA ) * ( ( VEL^2 ) / (2 * 32.174 ) ) )
          • FF = swain jain friction factor equation = 0.25/(LOG(( COE / DIA /3.7)+ (5.74/ REN^0.9))^2)
          • REN = reynolds number" = VEL * DIA / KEN
          • KEN = kinematic viscosity in feet squard per second = 0.0000121
          • COE = darcy weisbach roughness coefficent = 0.000005
          • LEN = length of straight pipe in feet = 10 feet
          • DIA = inside pipe diameter in feet
          • VEL = velocity in feet per second
        • hazen and williams equation
          • ( fill in later )
        • mannings equation
          • ( fill in later )
      • DYNAMIC MINOR HEAD LOSS
        • dynamic head loss in feet = K * VEL * VEL / ( 2 * G )
        • K = K value of fittings, or K coefficent value of fittings or K coefficent factor of fittings.
        • VEL = velocity in feet per second
        • G = 32.174 in feet per second squared = acceleration of gravity
      • VELOCITY
        • velocity in feet per second = CFS / AF
        • GPH = gallons per hour
        • CFS = cubic feet per second = GPH / ( 7.48 * 60 * 60 )
        • DIA = inside diameter of pipe in inches
        • AF = area of a circle in feet = ( DIA * DIA * PIE ) / 576
      • weight of a fish, by length of fish
        • LEN = length of fish in inches
        • LBS = LEN * LEN * LEN / 1650
        • LBS * 1.5 = weight for a fat fish in pounds
        • LBS = average weight of fish in pounds
        • LBS * 0.5 = weight for a skinny fish fish in pounds
        • equation works for koi. other types of fish such as catfish, or goldfish. equation is off.
      Last edited by boggen; 01-10-2007 at 10:46 PM.

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      nominal pipe size vs actual inside diameter of pipe

      most folks know pipe sizes by there nominal pipe size. aka 1.5", 1", 2", 3", 4" etc... but in reality pipe sizes are actually completely different.

      most pipe sizes have a fixed set outside diameter, but the inside diameter changes based on schedule, iron pipe size or stainless steal scheducle.

      below are tables. can be used to obtain the more accurate inside diameter. to use in equations, formulas, and calculations, for figureing head losses.
      Attached Images Attached Images     
      Last edited by boggen; 01-04-2007 at 07:06 AM.

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      bottom drain gap height diagrams and chart to set gap height

      Quote Originally Posted by Ronin-Koi
      The below diagram explains how I determined the proper height for setting my bottom drain covers. While I am using the Koi Village bottom drain, which ought to be set at around half an inch, you can use the below equation for whatever drain and pipe you are using. Notice that I used the sump (bowl) diameter and not the outer rim diameter. On the Koi Village bottom drain, the sump diameter determines where the restriction will be since the cover is flat. If your cover is domed, then the restriction might not be at the sump, but at the edge of the dome, so use the dome diameter.

      - Wayne, won't have to worry about installing the covers until next spring.
      Attached Images
      see ronin-koi oringal post by clicking here

      gap height = pipe radius * pipe radius / dome diameter
      gap height = pipe diameter * pipe diameter / ( dome diameter * 4 )

      FIRST PICTURE, is by ronin-koi, to obtain bottom drain gap hieght for the dome.

      SECOND PICTURE. is just a little graph, to determind what gap height you should set the dome to.
      1. simply, look up the bottom drain diameter across the bottom portion of chart.
      2. then lookup to what diameter of pipe is connected to drain.
      3. then look to the left to determind gap height.
      if you follow ronin-koi example, in his picture, 8.5 dome diameter should show close to 1/2" gap height on chart.
      Attached Images Attached Images   
      Last edited by boggen; 01-05-2007 at 12:39 AM.

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      ronin-koi 3d diagram showing bottom drain, air diffuser on bottom drain dome, and TPR's ( trigental point returns )
      click here to see ronin-koi oringal post

      Quote Originally Posted by Ronin-Koi View Post
      I thought it would be helpful for those new to pond construction if I posted an explanation of some common koi pond features that many forum veterans take for granted. Quite often, I read posts by members that indicate some confusion on the operation of some essential components of a koi pond, and the benefits that they offer in keeping the pond functioning effectively. I also see a lot of posts by people who question the need for some of these elements, especially bottom drains and aerators (air diffusers), primarily because of the added difficulty in installing them.



      Hopefully, the below illustration will help to shed some light on how these components can create efficient flow dynamics to keep our koi ponds clean. Maybe as newer members design their new ponds, or ponder the next re-do, they will consider adding these features onto their system. If you have any questions, or have any other comments, feel free to post.



      - Wayne, thinks of the pond system as a large toilet bowl, that effectively moves all debris OUT of the pond, and into the filters.
      Attached Images Attached Images  

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