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cindy
05-09-2007, 09:18 AM
I'll try to have all the parasites in order, with video attached and then I'll sticky. I plan on having the magnification size needed for each and treatment:clap: Also trying to list who recommends what treatment. Treatments are all separate, not combined. No using proform and salt. This is an in the works so please double check me before using. I'm learning with you

ICH Ichthyophthirius mutifilils visible at 200x- picture from Graham

video from Sacrament koi - http://sacramentokoi.com/video/Ich.m1v

From Koicrisis.com
1. Remove valued live plants.
2. Raise temperature to 80 degrees, tops.
3. Increase aeration!
4. Add one teaspoon of salt per gallon.
5. Twelve hours later, add another one teaspoon of salt per gallon.
6. Twelve hours later, add another one teaspoon of salt per gallon.
7. Within 48-60 hours of the second salt dose at 80 degrees, the Ich will be gone.
8. Leave salt in the water for another 3-5 days unless you're worried about your live plants.
9. Remove salt via partial waterchanges. (30-40% at a time if desired).

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:20 AM
Chilodonella - Chilo visible at 200x - pic supplied by Lee B

Video from Sacramento Koi http://sacramentokoi.com/video/Chilodinella.m1v

http://www.goldfishvet.com/video/chilodonella%2001.mpg

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:27 AM
Costia Ichthyobodo Nectrix visible at 300 X -400 X
Costia video (link to koivet)

http://www.koivet.com/movies/costia400.mpg

Costia video from Duncan: costia is unmistakable once you have seen it for the first time no other parasite moves in this fashion, like its trying to turn itself inside out. http://homepage.ntlworld.com/duncan.griffiths//costia22.mpg

this movie was shot at 400X magnification, at this magnification the depth of field for focus is very narrow and as this bug Jinks through the mucus layer it will go out of focus slightly but i think you will get the idea.

Costia is a minute Flagellate with 3-4 flagella. It affects both the skin and gills of Koi, and reproduces itself by binary fission. Infestations of this parasite can appear very rapidly indeed, and Koi suffering infestations exhibit the classic symptoms of lethargy, clamped fins, rubbing and flashing and the skin can take on a grey white opaqueness.

Costia normally only affects fish that have already been debilitated by some other cause, and can often be seen on Koi as a secondary parasite.

A high magnification must be used to view these parasites (300 x) and staining is recommended for positive identification.

Ichthyobodo necatrix. At any concentration a killer. Easy to eradicate if you know what it doesn't like: Heat is #1. Costia is immobilized at 87*F. and can no longer reproduce. It only takes a couple days and they are gone. Other treatments work well but heat is still the easiest and the most efficient.

Your koi will love the heat once the bugs are gone. Their appetites will return with a vengence (Karl S)

Recommended treatments include Potassium Permanganate, Acriflavine and strong salt baths of 3% ( 4 and one half oz. per gallon )

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:30 AM
Gill FLukes - Dactylogyrus visible at 100x
skin flukes - Gyrodactylus visible at 100xFlukes (koivet video)

http://www.koivet.com/movies/fluke2.mpg

skin fluke ....................................and gill fluke

Treatment:

Praziquantel: Gill and Skin Flukes:
A trematodicide. Praziquantel induces a rapid contraction of schistosomes(a worm or fluke)by a specific effect on the permeability of the cell membrane. The drug further causes vacuolization(causes more and larger spaces or cavities within each individual cell)and disintegration of the cells as well as the Schistosome tegument(the fluke body covering). Bursting of the cell walls might be a much simpler way of describing it and may be equally correct.

Praziquantel must be ingested by the fluke to work. The dosage is one gram per 100 gallons of water. Currently the directions suggest using level tablespoons to measure the product. That is a mistake. In my experience a level tablespoon may hold anywhere from 2.5 to 4.5 grams of product. Not only is this wasteful and inaccurate; it is also very expensive. Please use a gram scale. Calibrate it often.

Since it does not mix readily with water a label dosage ProformC may be used, or it can be dosed with the ProformC as part of the treatment described above. Once it is fully dissolved it does not seem to filter out or precipitate. It simply degrades over time. When using Praziquantel, the water temperature should be in the mid-seventies(US). The first and all succeeding treatments should last seven days each whether treating for gill flukes(Dactylogyrus) or skin flukes(Gyrodactylus). 25% water changes should be made between treatments. Redosing will immediately bring it to the strength needed to kill flukes. I strongly recommend a second if not a third application of this product due to the life cycle of the flukes as well as the thickness of the slime coat on Koi. In colder waters (60*F to 70*F) a third and even a fourth application should be considered when treating for gill flukes. Because of the cost of Praziquantel and the reduced treatment time it is well worth the effort to bring the temperature up to optimum

Organphosphates-Fluke Tabs:
Fluke Tabs work well in waters where the Kh is less than 170ppm. Above that the poison is bound by the water and becomes ineffective. Attempts at double and triple dosing in high Kh waters results in killing the flukes AND the fish. There are tests taking place currently to verify the accuracy of this information.

Fenbendazole:An older type dewormer which seems to work at times, the dosage is 1 gram per 100 gallons.\ and is used the same way as Praziquantel.

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:35 AM
Saprolegnia - seeing algae on a fish? Its probably Saprolegnia

REC has a wonderful article and pics http://www.koivet.com/html/articles/articles_details.php?article_id=256 I refer to it often in my ER binder

Fungal Infections
Sap or Saprolegnia is the main genus of water molds which can bring about significant fungal infections in fish and eggs. It's safe to say that all ponds have water molds in them. Unless the fish are compromised the slime coat will, in most cases, protect the fish from an invasion. Sap invades epidermal tissues In common with all molds, it does so by secreting digestive enzymes into the surrounding areas. Since enzymes in general break things down it's easy to understand that this secretion enables the fungi to more easily absorb nutrients from the affected area. SAP slowly is digesting the fish! at this point it is called saprolegniasis.

SAP can spread over the entire body, but is usually spotted as pale white or grey patches. Sometimes it will be green if algae has been caught in it. It is usually considered to be a secondary infection seen after damage to the fish skin or gills. However it can be primary as it is temperature dependant, occuring in cooler waters as a consquence of immune system shutdown.

SAP Treatment
It is generally agreed that Malachite Green is by far the most effective treatment. Be careful with this stuff! Eye and skin protection is required. A stock solution can be made with it and it is applied topically to thoroughly and deeply clean the wound. A dental adhesive may be applied afterward if desired.

Stock solution: 28.4 grams makes one gallon. To treat directly use the stock solution straight. For other treatments use one drop per gallon.

Treatment is should be made as soon as possible along with determining the actual cause of the invasion and dealing with that as well.

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:37 AM
louse (visible to the eye)

Argulus another crustacean parasite, round and up to 1cm wide. They have a sucker to hold on to the Koi with needle-like mouth parts which they stick into the Koi and inject a toxin. This causes intense irritation to the Koi and they scratch and jump and can cause bacterial infection.

If they infect the gills they cause severe damage and often death. Most antiparasite remedies will not kill fish lice, a strong chemical is needed which is not freely on sale. Ask a professional dealer or vet.

cindy
05-09-2007, 09:42 AM
Anchor worm - visible to the eye

Crustacean parasite, Lernaea - Anchor worm is a common parasite on our Koi which is clearly visible to the naked eye and can reach 10 to 12mm. The parasite burrows its head into the Koi's tissue, under a scale and only the body and tail are normally visible.

The juvenile stages settle in the gills of Koi, when they mature they mate and the male leaves the Koi, the fertilized female settles on the body of the Koi and continues to grow, becoming the familiar worm shape. *added pics*

The female buries into the skin and underlying tissue to hold on. The damage caused can become a target for bacterial or fungal infection which can spread.

Lernaea lay eggs which can lay undetected in the pond and can hatch when conditions and water temperatures are right.

Treatment is by manual removal of the parasite with tweezers under anesthetic, ensuring that the whole parasite is removed. To be sure of complete removal, dip a cotton bud in strong potassium permanganate solution and dab the worm with this solution whereupon it will release its grip immediately. Pond treatments include Dimilin or Paradex.

cindy
05-09-2007, 03:33 PM
Trichodina - visible at 200x

little flying saucers!:yes: video link to Sacramento koi
http://sacramentokoi.com/video/Trichodina.m1v

Trichodina is one of the easiest protozoan parasites to detect under the microscope as it is almost perfectly round with hundreds of hooks which resemble cilia found its periphery and it constantly rotates as it moves through the mucus, causing tissues damage.

It attacks both skin and gill tissues of our Koi, and can often cause more damage to gills than realized.

Classed as a warm water parasite, it can survive for some time without a host. It causes vegetation of the skin giving rise to a grey white opaque appearance on the body of infected Koi which exhibit the classic symptoms of flashing, rubbing and lethargy.

cindy
05-09-2007, 03:33 PM
Epistylis visible at 200x

See Sap

cindy
05-09-2007, 03:33 PM
Hexamita visible at 200x hole in the head disease

video is avian hexamita http://homepage.mac.com/exoticdvm/bird/iMovieTheater97.html

Weak or stressed fishes seem to be most susceptible to heavy infestation. Physical signs of hexamitiasis include weight loss, decreased activity and refusal of food.

Confirmation of hexamita infection is easily done by making a squash preparation of the intestine and examining it with a light microscope at 200 and 400x. The flagellates move rapidly and erratically. They are most easily seen in areas where the mucosa is broken. If the infestation is severe they are numerous and easily found.

The recommended treatment for hexamita is metronidazole (Flagyl) administered in a medicated food or, if the fish are not eating, in a bath treatment. Metronidazole can be administered orally at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight (or 10 mg/gm food) for 5 consecutive days. A recipe for a gelatinized food is shown in Table 1 . The medication can also be mixed with dry food using fish oil as a binding agent. One teaspoon of metronidazole weighs approximately 2.25 gm; therefore 2 tsp. should be added to each pound of food. The drug should be added when the gelatinized mixture has cooled, but has not yet set. The medicated food can then be frozen for storage. During the 5 day treatment regime feed only the medicated food to the fish. If fish are not accustomed to a gelatinized food they can be trained to accept the mixture by preparing the food without medication and feeding it occasionally. Training should be done when fish are healthy rather than waiting until they are sick. Sick fish do not eat well and may completely refuse unfamiliar food

*information from the University of Florida's site http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VM053

cindy
05-09-2007, 03:34 PM
Oodinium visible at 200 x

OODINIUM (VELVET)
Symptoms: Fine grey-gold to whitish 'dust' on the body
Very rapid gill movement
Scratching or flashing
Clamping of the fins
Very similar it ICH

nitrite, or excessive nitrate levels.

This parasite is a microscopic dinoflagellate (two little "whip like organs" or flagella used to propel the parasite through the water). It attaches to the skin (then loses the flagella) of fish in order to feed. Initially it appears as small white dots (similar to ich) but is much finer giving it a "velvet" appearance. They can live without a fish host for up to 24 hours in the water

info and pics from http://www.fishdeals.com/fish_diseases/oodinium_velvet/

cindy
05-09-2007, 03:54 PM
If you have fish you will. We have visitors that leave surprises. Right now I have a frog, and the birds use my bio filter for their baths and toilet.

Ideally our fish are strong and can live in harmony with most of this stuff, until their immunity is low or the bugs get the upper hand.

Don't wait till you need to. Start a binder now with the bugs and emergency notes. Karl has a wonderful post with all this info. This one is going to be an one stop shop. You look, you find, you identify, and you'll have your treatment options for each.

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:07 PM
great pics and descriptions. Soon as I do this section, I want to move on to carp pox, dropsy, ulcers, sap, fin and tail rot. THis section will rock!

Marie
05-09-2007, 04:12 PM
Cool - and very timely too. We are having a wet lab at our next koi club meeting. Can I borrow some of your information?

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:22 PM
sure, I'm trying to get an ok from our kha newsletter editor. He has a fabulous couple pages with info pictures and several different people treatments lined up.

IMPALA
05-09-2007, 06:37 PM
Cindy
all I can say is thanks.:bow:

Ignorance is bliss.:rolleyes:

I haven't used a scope, even though DW has an old one.
I just knew that when I saw what I was seeing, I wouldn't know what I was looking at.:confused:

Merlin
05-10-2007, 04:42 AM
GREAT thread Cindy :clap: Errrrr ! would you mind if I borrowed it :D:

All credit will go to those that contributed . :bow:

cindy
05-10-2007, 09:58 AM
help yourself. The point is for all of us to learn and be comfortable.

Mick, grab the scope and play with it. Grab some ditch water and you'll be amazed.

Mine is sitting on the kitchen counter.

Indykoi
05-16-2007, 05:38 PM
awesome thanks , hope I never see some of these under my scope , but if I do now I can identify it.

chidams
05-20-2007, 04:02 PM
Thanks Cindy, this thread is very helpfull :cool:

cindy
05-21-2007, 03:50 PM
just seems like the little "c" would have been a better costia

KoiValley
05-21-2007, 06:21 PM
just seems like the little "c" would have been a better costia

Ichthyobodo necatrix. At any concentration a killer. Easy to eradicate if you know what it doesn't like: Heat is #1. Costia is immobilized at 87*F. and can no longer reproduce. It only takes a couple days and they are gone. Other treatments work well but heat is still the easiest and the most efficient.

Your koi will love the heat once the bugs are gone. Their appetites will return with a vengence.

Karl

cindy
05-22-2007, 09:21 AM
got any neat pics to add, Karl?

KoiValley
05-22-2007, 03:15 PM
got any neat pics to add, Karl?

I have my Fluke video. Got to dig that up or go buy some more sickos.

Karl

cindy
05-23-2007, 03:28 PM
I put your part on the costia thread.

waterlover
05-27-2007, 10:23 PM
Anchor worm - visible to the eye

Crustacean parasite, Lernaea - Anchor worm is a common parasite on our Koi which is clearly visible to the naked eye and can reach 10 to 12mm. The parasite burrows its head into the Koi's tissue, under a scale and only the body and tail are normally visible.

The juvenile stages settle in the gills of Koi, when they mature they mate and the male leaves the Koi, the fertilized female settles on the body of the Koi and continues to grow, becoming the familiar worm shape.

The female buries into the skin and underlying tissue to hold on. The damage caused can become a target for bacterial or fungal infection which can spread.

Lernaea lay eggs which can lay undetected in the pond and can hatch when conditions and water temperatures are right.

Treatment is by manual removal of the parasite with tweezers under anesthetic, ensuring that the whole parasite is removed. To be sure of complete removal, dip a cotton bud in strong potassium permanganate solution and dab the worm with this solution whereupon it will release its grip immediately. Pond treatments include Dimilin or Paradex.

Is there another worm parasite that's visible to the naked eye? The drawing of the skin fluke looked similar to one I found today when I was doing a water change. I scooped it out of the bucket and looked at it with a magnifying glass. It was no more than 1/4" long, dark brown, but under bright magnified light it looked mottled/spotted dark gray/semi clear. It seemed to have the double bump on one end and the other end was slightly wider than the rest.

Nancy

Funbug
05-29-2007, 02:34 PM
:cool: This is very cool! I sure know where to go whenever I get my own microscope. Good job. :clap:

cindy
06-02-2007, 09:47 PM
Nancy, maybe a small leech or dragon fly larvae?

waterlover
06-02-2007, 11:27 PM
I've seen what probably are dragon fly larvae hanging out in the water on top of pebbles in pots of plants in the pond--when they have legs and head with eyes abt. 1" long, it seems more obvious. No legs-1/4", just looks like a worm at this point. Did I read something about dragon fly larvae being bad for fish?

cindy
06-12-2007, 09:30 PM
nope, fish will eat them. Sorry I missed this. pm me if I don't see a post

HanoverKoiFarms
09-05-2007, 06:48 PM
Anchor worm - visible to the eye

Crustacean parasite, Lernaea - Anchor worm is a common parasite on our Koi which is clearly visible to the naked eye and can reach 10 to 12mm. The parasite burrows its head into the Koi's tissue, under a scale and only the body and tail are normally visible.

The juvenile stages settle in the gills of Koi, when they mature they mate and the male leaves the Koi, the fertilized female settles on the body of the Koi and continues to grow, becoming the familiar worm shape.

The female buries into the skin and underlying tissue to hold on. The damage caused can become a target for bacterial or fungal infection which can spread.

Lernaea lay eggs which can lay undetected in the pond and can hatch when conditions and water temperatures are right.

Treatment is by manual removal of the parasite with tweezers under anesthetic, ensuring that the whole parasite is removed. To be sure of complete removal, dip a cotton bud in strong potassium permanganate solution and dab the worm with this solution whereupon it will release its grip immediately. Pond treatments include Dimilin or Paradex.

There are two other stages that are not visible to the eye.Most folks are under the false impression that you should not treat for them if you don't see them on the fish. They are extremely common and I would treat for them anytime I am doing other treatments for parasites.

majederr
09-07-2007, 07:57 AM
So treat anyway? how long after proform and Prazi should you wait to treat? Joanne

cindy
09-07-2007, 10:24 AM
Great pics. I've never treated because I've never seen an adult?

SDGeorge
09-27-2007, 12:14 AM
Most antiparasite remedies will not kill fish lice, a strong chemical is needed which is not freely on sale. Ask a professional dealer or vet


Dimilin and Express IDI both kill Lice and Anchor worm, and are readily available from koi supply websites. Very few carry both. Most carry one or the other.

Express IDI is the one I prefer after personal experience. (as it happens, I just used it today.) :cry:

Anchor's away works on both lice and anchor worms, and although I've never used it, I hear mixed results about it's success.




Let's do a comparison just for fun: I'll use the 30,000 gallon figure from EIDI's label for ease. (My pond is 7,000 gallons)

Express IDI:
Cost $50, and will treat 30,000 gallons. One dose is usually sufficient.

Dimilin:
Cost $15 for 16oz bottle which treats 2,000 gallons. It has to be reapplied after 14 days. (I even found one place recommending a third application)

Anchor's away: $18 for an 18 oz bottle, which treats 4,000 gallons. It needs to be applied 3 times, once every 6 days, and requires a 25% water change in between doses.

For the same 30,000 gallons EIDI would treat for $50, it would take 15 bottles fof Dimilin or the first dose, and 15 more for the second. For $450. And AA would need about 22 bottles at $18 each for $400.

All of these products have long shelf lives, but the one ounce bottle of Express IDI sure takes up a lot less space, and costs a lot less to ship. :clap:


Just my 2 cents.

cindy
09-27-2007, 09:12 AM
thank you!