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cindy
05-09-2007, 10:18 AM
This is an in the works so please double check me before using. I'm learning with you.

*An incredible video on parasites* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAPVLd4w4xE

No using proform and salt together.

Here's a nice print out to go in your first aid kit, bugs at a glance

http://www.koiphen.com/forums/attachment.php?attachmentid=237151&stc=1&d=1202997216

ICH -White spot - Ichthyophthirius mutifilils visible at 200x
- picture from Graham

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI9v-MUrErs


Ichthyophthirius multifilils -ick----------200X How I remember "Oh I "C" (see) Ich, they contain a 'C"

Known as white spot. Easily seen on the body with the naked eye when they get to the mature/dangerous stage.

The problem often experienced with koi is that it is only on the gills and so is not observed except for symptoms of flashing like so many other parasite infestations.

TREATMENT
Duncan: salt with heat. salt at .6 % and raise the temp to 71-74 F
Karl S -Salt at .6% along with an increase in temperatures usually is enough to eradicate them. ProformC also is an effective treatment with an increase in temperature, temp should be at least 55 degrees before using Proform.

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:20 AM
Chilodonella - Chilo visible at 200x - pic supplied by Lee B -reminds me of little swimming lemons

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6apw6xkM8yU&NR=1

TREATMENT(Karl S)

Chilodonella has a distinctive round shape. It moves like the mother ship in space. Fairly slow under the scope, and cilliates wave from it's outer ring.

Chilo is easily eradicated with salt at .6%. This salt treatment has an overall duration of 14 days. There are no ill effects using salt at this level. After the treatment is complete a series of water changes should be completed to slowly reduce the salt level to just that of the raw(incoming)water.

Chilo may also be treated with (ProformC) for Costia. Either treatment will be effective but in the case of formaldehyde it is important that the organics(dirty water-poor water quality)be removed somewhat with a minimum 25% water change to improve the performance of the chemical.

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:27 AM
Costia Ichthyobodo Nectrix visible at 300 X -400 X
Costia video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=to0IhQVv4IM&feature=related

Costia is unmistakable once you have seen it for the first time no other parasite moves in this fashion, like its trying to turn itself inside out.

Costia is a minute Flagellate with 3-4 flagella. It affects both the skin and gills of Koi, and reproduces itself by binary fission. Infestations of this parasite can appear very rapidly indeed, and Koi suffering infestations exhibit the classic symptoms of lethargy, clamped fins, rubbing and flashing and the skin can take on a grey white opaqueness.

Costia normally only affects fish that have already been debilitated by some other cause, and can often be seen on Koi as a secondary parasite.

Costia reproduces quickly when conditions are right. Reproduction is by binary fission. The symptoms are varied. Lethargic, disoriented, dark pigmentation, clamped fins, redening at the base of the dorsal, thin slime coat or sandpaper like feel are all indicators. More advanced cases will produce a notch above the mouth and the eyes will become sunken. Infections of costia commonly occur around he base of the dorsal fin.

Under the microscope it looks somewhat teardrop shaped and moves with the irregularity of bumper cars at the county fair. Cell streams are sometimes mistaken for costia. Cell streams all move in the same direction. They vary in speed but are not to be mistaken for costia.

TREATMENT Costia is easily eradicated by applying heat. At 87*F. Costia is immobilized and can no longer reproduce. It only takes a few days for all to die. Unfortunately most pond settings do not allow for heat to applied to this degree. For those situations ProformC will work well. It is a formaldehyde and malachite green solution safe enough to be shipped without HazMat fees and is quite effective. The dosage may be increased slightly without fear to allow for errors in calculating the gallonage of the pond. Prior to dosing a 25 to 50% water change is advised to reduce the organics and improve performance of the chemical. Karl S

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:30 AM
Gill FLukes - Dactylogyrus visible at 100x - egg layer, harder to treat
Skin flukes - Gyrodactylus visible at 100x Adult carries a full size fluke, kill the parent, kill the baby.

Gill fluke (notice the 4 eyes) Easy way to remember, I call him Gilbert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vuhtfPSAmLE&feature=related

Skin fluke http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rudMoriCEHA&feature=related


Skin fluke ....................................and Gill fluke

TREATMENTPraziquantel: Gill and Skin Flukes:

A trematodicide. Praziquantel must be ingested by the fluke to work. The dosage is one gram per 100 gallons of water. Currently the directions suggest using level tablespoons to measure the product. That is a mistake. In my experience a level tablespoon may hold anywhere from 2.5 to 4.5 grams of product. Not only is this wasteful and inaccurate; it is also very expensive. Please use a gram scale. Calibrate it often.

Since it does not mix readily with water a label dosage ProformC may be used, or it can be dosed with the ProformC as part of the treatment described above. Once it is fully dissolved it does not seem to filter out or precipitate. It simply degrades over time. When using Praziquantel, the water temperature should be in the mid-seventies(US). The first and all succeeding treatments should last seven days each whether treating for gill flukes(Dactylogyrus) or skin flukes(Gyrodactylus). 25% water changes should be made between treatments. Redosing will immediately bring it to the strength needed to kill flukes. I strongly recommend a second if not a third application of this product due to the life cycle of the flukes as well as the thickness of the slime coat on Koi. In colder waters (60*F to 70*F) a third and even a fourth application should be considered when treating for gill flukes. Because of the cost of Praziquantel and the reduced treatment time it is well worth the effort to bring the temperature up to optimum.

Supaverm A goat wormer. Don't use if you have goldfish, make sure to mix well before adding to prevent burns.

Organphosphates-Fluke Tabs:
Fluke Tabs work well in waters where the Kh is less than 170ppm. Above that the poison is bound by the water and becomes ineffective. Attempts at double and triple dosing in high Kh waters results in killing the flukes AND the fish. There are tests taking place currently to verify the accuracy of this information.

Fenbendazole:An older type dewormer which seems to work at times, the dosage is 1 gram per 100 gallons and is used the same way as Praziquantel.

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:35 AM
Saprolegnia - seeing algae on a fish? Its probably Saprolegnia


Fungal Infections
Sap or Saprolegnia is the main genus of water molds which can bring about significant fungal infections in fish and eggs. It's safe to say that all ponds have water molds in them. Unless the fish are compromised the slime coat will, in most cases, protect the fish from an invasion. Sap invades epidermal tissues In common with all molds, it does so by secreting digestive enzymes into the surrounding areas. Since enzymes in general break things down it's easy to understand that this secretion enables the fungi to more easily absorb nutrients from the affected area. SAP slowly is digesting the fish! at this point it is called saprolegniasis.

SAP can spread over the entire body, but is usually spotted as pale white or grey patches. Sometimes it will be green if algae has been caught in it. It is usually considered to be a secondary infection seen after damage to the fish skin or gills. However it can be primary as it is temperature dependant, occuring in cooler waters as a consquence of immune system shutdown.

SAP TREATMENT
Proform C

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:37 AM
louse (visible to the eye)

Argulus another crustacean parasite, round and up to 1cm wide. They have a sucker to hold on to the Koi with needle-like mouth parts which they stick into the Koi and inject a toxin. This causes intense irritation to the Koi and they scratch and jump and can cause bacterial infection.

If they infect the gills they cause severe damage and often death.

TREATMENT
Dimlin
Express IDI I'm getting more information on :Cost $50, and will treat 30,000 gallons. One dose is usually sufficient

cindy
05-09-2007, 10:42 AM
Anchor worm - visible to the eye

Crustacean parasite, Lernaea - Anchor worm is a common parasite on our Koi which is clearly visible to the naked eye and can reach 10 to 12mm. The parasite burrows its head into the Koi's tissue, under a scale and only the body and tail are normally visible.

The juvenile stages settle in the gills of Koi, when they mature they mate and the male leaves the Koi, the fertilized female settles on the body of the Koi and continues to grow, becoming the familiar worm shape. *added pics*

The female buries into the skin and underlying tissue to hold on. The damage caused can become a target for bacterial or fungal infection which can spread.

Lernaea lay eggs which can lay undetected in the pond and can hatch when conditions and water temperatures are right.

TREATMENT manual removal of the parasite with tweezers under anesthetic, ensuring that the whole parasite is removed. To be sure of complete removal, dip a cotton bud in strong potassium permanganate solution and dab the worm with this solution whereupon it will release its grip immediately. Pond treatments include Dimilin or Paradex.

TREATMENT
Express IDI I'm getting more information on :Cost $50, and will treat 30,000 gallons.

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:33 PM
Trichodina - visible at 200x

little flying saucers!:yes: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGB854VihD4


Trichodina is one of the easiest protozoan parasites to detect under the microscope as it is almost perfectly round with hundreds of hooks which resemble cilia found its periphery and it constantly rotates as it moves through the mucus, causing tissues damage.

It attacks both skin and gill tissues of our Koi, and can often cause more damage to gills than realized.

Classed as a warm water parasite, it can survive for some time without a host. It causes vegetation of the skin giving rise to a grey white opaque appearance on the body of infected Koi which exhibit the classic symptoms of flashing, rubbing and lethargy.

TREATMENT! Salt will kill this parasite but it has to be in a strong enough dose. 3 lbs. of non-iodized salt per 100 gallons = .3 % will kill Trichodina. The salt must stay in the water for at least 14 days to kill any baby trichodina

Remove any plants before using salt in this dose.

ProForm can be used if your water is 55 degrees or abouve

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:33 PM
Epistylis visible at 200x

See Sap

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:33 PM
Hexamita visible at 200x hole in the head disease

video is avian hexamita http://homepage.mac.com/exoticdvm/bird/iMovieTheater97.html

Weak or stressed fishes seem to be most susceptible to heavy infestation. Physical signs of hexamitiasis include weight loss, decreased activity and refusal of food.

Confirmation of hexamita infection is easily done by making a squash preparation of the intestine (squash some fish poo) and examining it with a light microscope at 200 and 400x. The flagellates move rapidly and erratically. They are most easily seen in areas where the mucosa is broken. If the infestation is severe they are numerous and easily found.

TREATMENT for hexamita is metronidazole (Flagyl) administered in a medicated food or, if the fish are not eating, in a bath treatment. Metronidazole can be administered orally at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight (or 10 mg/gm food) for 5 consecutive days. A recipe for a gelatinized food is shown in Table 1 . The medication can also be mixed with dry food using fish oil as a binding agent. One teaspoon of metronidazole weighs approximately 2.25 gm; therefore 2 tsp. should be added to each pound of food. The drug should be added when the gelatinized mixture has cooled, but has not yet set. The medicated food can then be frozen for storage. During the 5 day treatment regime feed only the medicated food to the fish. If fish are not accustomed to a gelatinized food they can be trained to accept the mixture by preparing the food without medication and feeding it occasionally. Training should be done when fish are healthy rather than waiting until they are sick. Sick fish do not eat well and may completely refuse unfamiliar food

*information from the University of Florida's site http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VM053

cindy
05-09-2007, 04:34 PM
Oodinium visible at 200 x

OODINIUM (VELVET)
Symptoms: Fine grey-gold to whitish 'dust' on the body
Very rapid gill movement
Scratching or flashing
Clamping of the fins
Very similar it ICH

nitrite, or excessive nitrate levels.

This parasite is a microscopic dinoflagellate (two little "whip like organs" or flagella used to propel the parasite through the water). It attaches to the skin (then loses the flagella) of fish in order to feed. Initially it appears as small white dots (similar to ich) but is much finer giving it a "velvet" appearance. They can live without a fish host for up to 24 hours in the water

info and pics from http://www.fishdeals.com/fish_diseases/oodinium_velvet/

HanoverKoiFarms
09-05-2007, 07:48 PM
Anchor worm - visible to the eye

Crustacean parasite, Lernaea - Anchor worm is a common parasite on our Koi which is clearly visible to the naked eye and can reach 10 to 12mm. The parasite burrows its head into the Koi's tissue, under a scale and only the body and tail are normally visible.

The juvenile stages settle in the gills of Koi, when they mature they mate and the male leaves the Koi, the fertilized female settles on the body of the Koi and continues to grow, becoming the familiar worm shape.

The female buries into the skin and underlying tissue to hold on. The damage caused can become a target for bacterial or fungal infection which can spread.

Lernaea lay eggs which can lay undetected in the pond and can hatch when conditions and water temperatures are right.

Treatment is by manual removal of the parasite with tweezers under anesthetic, ensuring that the whole parasite is removed. To be sure of complete removal, dip a cotton bud in strong potassium permanganate solution and dab the worm with this solution whereupon it will release its grip immediately. Pond treatments include Dimilin or Paradex.

There are two other stages that are not visible to the eye.Most folks are under the false impression that you should not treat for them if you don't see them on the fish. They are extremely common and I would treat for them anytime I am doing other treatments for parasites.

SDGeorge
09-27-2007, 01:14 AM
Most antiparasite remedies will not kill fish lice, a strong chemical is needed which is not freely on sale. Ask a professional dealer or vet


Dimilin and Express IDI both kill Lice and Anchor worm, and are readily available from koi supply websites. Very few carry both. Most carry one or the other.

Express IDI is the one I prefer after personal experience. (as it happens, I just used it today.) :cry:

Anchor's away works on both lice and anchor worms, and although I've never used it, I hear mixed results about it's success.




Let's do a comparison just for fun: I'll use the 30,000 gallon figure from EIDI's label for ease. (My pond is 7,000 gallons)

Express IDI:
Cost $50, and will treat 30,000 gallons. One dose is usually sufficient.

Dimilin:
Cost $15 for 16oz bottle which treats 2,000 gallons. It has to be reapplied after 14 days. (I even found one place recommending a third application)

Anchor's away: $18 for an 18 oz bottle, which treats 4,000 gallons. It needs to be applied 3 times, once every 6 days, and requires a 25% water change in between doses.

For the same 30,000 gallons EIDI would treat for $50, it would take 15 bottles fof Dimilin or the first dose, and 15 more for the second. For $450. And AA would need about 22 bottles at $18 each for $400.

All of these products have long shelf lives, but the one ounce bottle of Express IDI sure takes up a lot less space, and costs a lot less to ship. :clap:


Just my 2 cents.

cindy
02-12-2008, 03:04 PM
:clap:

cindy
04-26-2008, 05:08 PM
A common site on a slide

Air bubbles

cindy
08-05-2008, 10:02 PM
very welcome

secret is starting on a low magnification and watch for movement, then move up. I like to use a plastic slide cover to scrape and then check the edge on the slide for movement.

Dusty
05-27-2010, 06:42 AM
Thanks for updating the videos cindy they are very helpful. You do a great job.

also if anyone can use this, here is a video i took of ich it was taken with a mirror microscope hehe at 300x



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLHdLIkgZO4

cindy
04-06-2012, 11:51 AM
Updating, wow can't believe it was 2007, I thought this was stickied

cindy
04-06-2012, 12:33 PM
If you have any parasite pics from your pond, I'd love to add.

docboli
04-14-2012, 08:03 AM
I found these aliens residing at the airstone and submersible pumps, I have no idea if they are dangerous to the kois. Tried to crush one and it has a crunchy sound. HELP!
http://i191.photobucket.com/albums/z279/docboli/dad9ce4c.jpg

http://i191.photobucket.com/albums/z279/docboli/dad9ce4c.jpg

cindy
04-14-2012, 09:14 PM
Looks like a dragonfly nymph, harmless to koi

Koidaddy
05-15-2012, 12:20 PM
May a few rounds of PP treatments be used in lieu of Proform C?
:scratch:

Wouter67
06-11-2012, 09:36 AM
Tricho will be killed the best with potassium permanganate 2 grams per 1000liters
The water will turn purple and must stay that for 5hrs. If it turns brown earlier redose with half the dose.

After 5 hrs you decolourise the water with hydrogen peroxide
If something goes wrong you can neutralize the Potassium permanganate with natriumthiosulfate

gander
03-12-2013, 12:48 AM
nope nothing there

Charles
05-22-2017, 03:28 PM
test post

koihandfeed
06-21-2017, 02:34 AM
I hope it is allowed for me to ask here.
What is the life cycle of skin flukes?
Should i do medication 2-3 times a week, and is changing water between each medication a must?

Thank you.

cindy
06-21-2017, 10:22 AM
What's your water temp? Warmer water shortens the cycle. Skin flukes are live bearers. Get the adult, get the baby. What medication are you using? Prazi can stay in the water.

koihandfeed
06-21-2017, 10:42 AM
What's your water temp? Warmer water shortens the cycle. Skin flukes are live bearers. Get the adult, get the baby. What medication are you using? Prazi can stay in the water.
My water temperature is 84 F.
My pH is 7.6~7.7.
KH is around 6-7 'dKH (i use sera quick test here : https://www.sera.de/en/product/sera-quick-test/ )
TDS is 220~250.

I have masoten.
I have not used it recently.

Thank you.

inazuma28
06-21-2017, 01:16 PM
My water temperature is 84 F.
My pH is 7.6~7.7.
KH is around 6-7 'dKH (i use sera quick test here : https://www.sera.de/en/product/sera-quick-test/ )
TDS is 220~250.

I have organophosphates.
I have not used it.

Thank you.

Ive used Dylox with great success but I know there are some horror stories out there about it

koihandfeed
06-21-2017, 03:09 PM
Ive used Dylox with great success but I know there are some horror stories out there about it
How did you use dylox? (dosage, how long, etc) Can you share your experience about your great success?

Thank you